The famous report on Sustainable Cement Industry published by the Batelle Institute, titled Climate Change, is available on the Internet at the following address:
This report confirms the studies carried out by Prof. Joseph Davidovits since 1990 on CO2 emissions during Portland Cement manufacture (in the LIBRARY the paper on Global Warming). Batelle’s report recommends the development of geopolymer cement; see on page 25 (39) of the report.
Climate change has become a prominent global issue, and governments are beginning to take significant steps to address the problem. For the cement industry, the climate change issue carries serious financial consequences, in addition to its environmental importance. Without action, the financial liabilities associated with the industry’s CO2 emissions will be large. But, through a well-managed strategy, significant financial benefits could accrue to the industry, particularly in the near-term.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas that drives global climate change and is the only greenhouse gas emitted by the cement industry in a significant amount. The cement industry emits approximately 5% of global, man-made CO2 emissions. When all greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activities are considered, the cement industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global emissions.
Due to the unique nature of the product it manufactures, the cement industry currently emits 0.73 to 0.99 kilograms of CO2 for every kilogram of cement produced. At any emission rate within this range, current proposals to curb CO2 emissions will profoundly affect the activities and finances of the industry. Future proposals will likely call for far more significant reductions. Cement-related greenhouse gas emissions originate from fossil fuel combustion at cement manufacturing operations (about 40% of the industry’s emissions); transport activities (about 5%) and the combustion of fossil fuel that is required to make the electricity consumed by the cement manufacturing operations (about 5%). The remaining cement-related emissions (about 50%) originate from the manufacturing process that converts limestone (CaCO3) to calcium oxide (CaO), the primary precursor to cement. It is chemically impossible to convert CaCO3 to CaO, and then cement clinker, without generating CO2. This CO2 is currently emitted to the atmosphere.