At the Geopolymer Camp 2018, in the Session: Ancient Technologies, Prof. J. Davidovits presented the first results of the joint research program conducted by the Geopolymer Institute and Universidad Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru, on Tiahuanaco / Pumapunku megalithic monuments (Tiwanaku), Bolivia (Lake Titicaca). See a brief summary of the lecture in Davidovits’ Keynote “State of the R&D 2018”, last 7 minutes of the video at GPCAMP-2018.
Tiwanaku Gate of the Sun and Pumapunku megalithic geopolymer sandstone slabs.
The platform on top of the 4 step pyramid of Pumapunku consists of 4 megalithic red sandstone slabs, weighing between 130 and 180 tonnes each, the largest among the New World monuments. Our study suggests that the slabs are a type of sandstone geopolymer concrete cast on the spot. It was recently published in Material Letters 235 (2019) 120-124, Online on 8 October 2018, <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2018.10.033> access with the following link: Materials Letters.
A second scientific paper dealing with the spectacular stone artifacts made of andesite geopolymer stone (H sculptures and the like) has been reviewed and accepted for publication in Ceramics International (January 3, 2019), with the title: “Ancient organo-mineral geopolymer in South- American Monuments: organic matter in andesite stone. SEM and petrographic evidence”. (Davidovits, J., Ceramics International, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.01.024).
Organic matter pointing on man-made stone and C-14 dating.
The presence of organic matter points to man-made stone. In addition it should allow C-14 dating of the geopolymer stone and consequently of the monument. On going research.
This study is linked to our research carried out 36 years ago (in the 1980s) titled “Making Cements with plant extracts” and available for free download in our Library, Archaeological paper #C at library/archaeological-papers.