Archaeological Paper #K-eng
published September 2019: DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31223.16800
Tiahuanaco monuments (Tiwanaku / Pumapunku) in Bolivia are made of geopolymer artificial stones created 1400 years ago.
Joseph Davidovits, Luis Huaman and Ralph Davidovits.
Transcript of the conference held at the Geopolymer Camp 2018, in the Session: Ancient Technologies, Tuesday, July 10, 2018, titled: “Joint Research Program Conducted by the Geopolymer Institute and Universidad Catolica San Pablo, Arequipa, Peru, First Scientific Results on Tiahuanaco / Pumapunku Megalithic Monuments (Tiwanaku), Bolivia.”
The first results of this research were published recently in leading international scientific journals:
- 1) On the geopolymer sandstone megalithic slabs: “Ancient geopolymer in South Americanmonuments. SEM and petrographic evidence “, Materials Letters 235 (2019) 120-124. DOI:doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2018.10.033, on line 8 October 2018.
- 2) On the geopolymer andesite volcanic “H” structures: “Ancient organo-mineral geopolymer in South American Monuments: organic matter in andesite stone. SEM and petrographic evidence”,Ceramics International 45 (2019), 7385-7389, DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.01.024. on line 4 January 2019.
The study carried out on the monumental stones constituting the Pumapunku site in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, proves that the stones are ancient artificial geopolymer and are not carved with simple hammer-stone or unknown technology, or by extraterrestrials. It is the human genius, intelligently exploiting the resources of its environment, who created these marvels.
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